Tag Archives: MAC address

Troubleshoot a Slow Network – The entire Network is Slow

The Entire Network is Slow

If the entire network or a part of the network is slow, this could be a strong suggestion for a faulty switch or a miss-configuration.

Poor network equipment
Usage of hubs is not recommended, (hubs are prone to collisions by design)
Cheap switches that cannot handle the total needed bandwidth. The switch’s chip can handle 100Mb/s for 12 ports, but the switch has 24 ports and all are connected. For low network usage this is not a problem, but if your network usage spikes, your switch will not be able to handle the bandwidth. The quick fix in such situation is to power off the switch for a few minutes and then power it back on.

Loopback
A loopback is a network cable that has both ends connected to the same switch. If it’s a managed switch activating loop protection on all the ports could fix the problem. You can look on the switch’s log file for excessive broadcasts and isolate the two ports that are in loop. If you don’t have managed switches you can use a packet sniffer to determine if there’s a loop. A wrongly configured Spanning tree could cause a loopback.
FIX: Check all the patch-cord connections in the faulty switch. Check for patch-cords that have both ens into the same switch. Check for more than one patch-cord connecting the same two switches.
If you have cascaded switches it is normal to be slower for the devices in the cascaded switch but is not normal for the devices that are not cascaded. Check if any cascaded device is not connected on two ports on the wall, (usually the ports on the wall go to the network room). Your cascaded switch makes a loop into the upper level switch.

Bad Network Configuration
DNS issues
can cause a lot of slowdowns.
One common error is to use your ISP’s DNS server inside your Active Directory network. Your Active Directory computer members will try to resolve internal names by querying your ISP’s DNS. Those records don’t exist outside of your network.
Fix: For all of your Active Directory network clients remove any entries for your ISP’s and use only internal DNS servers. Configure your ISP’s DNS server as a forwarder on your AD DNS servers.

Network switching equipment wrongly connected is the reason of slow network for many small networks. Typically this happens when a small switch is connected to the router. When the switch becomes too small for a growing network, the first impulse is to connect the computers into the router directly.
Fix
: Install a switch that will accommodate all of the computers in the network. Disconnect any computers connected directly into the router.
Note: It is normal for the wireless connected computers to have slower transfer rate than the wired ones. Most of the wireless routers and adapters function at 54Mb per second. If your router is a modern router, (100 Mb or faster), and you still don’t get the expected transfer rates, you should revise your configuration as above.

Broadcast storm
You can efficiently detect a broadcast storm using a packet sniffer or a managed switch. With a packet sniffer you need to look for large numbers of broadcast/multicast (more than 20% of the total traffic it is an alarm signal). Locate the retransmission packets and search for the source MAC address. Disconnect the problem host.
If you suspect a broadcast storm in your network and you don’t have a managed switch or a packet sniffer, you can run download and upload tests by systematically disconnecting all of your computers in the network one by one. This is only practical in small network environment.

Virus Attack
A lot of connections originating from the same MAC address, to the same destination port, but for different destination address, and in short intervals.
Fix: Determine the source address of these connections and disconnect the suspect hosts. Run an antivirus scan on the computer before plugging it back. There are a few ways to determine the source of a virus. Use a packet sniffer, look on your managed switch for the ports with the most traffic and confirm it on the suspected computer by issuing the command “netstat -a -b”, (on a Windows machine). The command will show you which ports are active and which program, (executable), is using the ports.

This article is part of a five posts series regarding Network Troubleshooting.

How to – Debian Static IP Configuration

On a basic Debian machine without a graphical interface assigning the same IP address all the times can be achieved in two ways.

Static IP Address

To configure a static IP, (an IP that will never change), and not use DHCP you must edit the file /etc/networking/interfaces.
Insert the following code at the end of the file and don’t change anything else unless you know what you do:

# The first network card – this entry was created during the Debian installation
# (network, broadcast and gateway are optional)
#Private Interface
iface eth0 inet static
address 192.168.0.254
netmask 255.255.255.0
network 192.168.0.0
broadcast 192.168.0.255
## only use gateway if your machine is not multi-homed, (two network cards). You can only have a default route.
# gateway 192.168.0.1

In our case the IP of the Debian machine is 192.168.0.254. The gateway, (the router), is 192.168.0.1 and it is a standard Class C network.

To refresh the network configuration without restarting the server execute:
/etc/init.d/networking restart

If that doesn’t work reboot the machine (reboot or init 6).

For a second network card you should add at the end of the file another entry for your second card:
#External interface
iface eth1 inet static
address 1.1.2.2
netmask 255.255.255.0
network 1.1.2.0
gateway 1.1.2.254

Check the new configuration by issuing the command:
ifconfig

DHCP Reserved address

If you want to set this via DHCP you have to make a reservation into your DHCP server for your network card’s MAC address.
You can find your MAC address by using the command ifconfig.
The server will spit some information on the screen that looks like this:
eth0 Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 00:33:ff:c4:2f:2b
inet addr:192.168.0.254 Bcast:192.168.10.255 Mask:255.255.255.0
inet6 addr: fe80::230:f4ff:fdd4:bf33/64 Scope:Link
UP BROADCAST RUNNING MULTICAST MTU:1500 Metric:1
RX packets:93373 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
TX packets:38320 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
collisions:0 txqueuelen:1000
RX bytes:76539317 (72.9 MiB) TX bytes:5551726 (5.2 MiB)
Interrupt:17 Base address:0x6000

The first line is the one you are interested in:
HWaddr 00:33:ff:c4:2f:2b
In your DHCP server make a reservation using 0033ffc42f2b as your MAC address. Note the removal of the colons in between.
Reboot the server and when the machine will try to renegociate its IP address the DHCP server will assign it the newly reserver address.

If you want to add a static route on your Debian machine edit your /etc/networking/interfaces file and add the following two lines at the end of your eth1, (eth0), configuration.
up route add -net 192.168.22.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 gw 192.168.100.254
down route del -net 192.168.22.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 gw 192.168.100.254
The two lines tell Debian to add a static route when the computer boots, and to remove the static route when it shuts down.

The parameters mean: 192.168.22.0 is the network you want to make your Debian machine aware of; 255.255.255.0 is the netmask of your added network, 192.168.100.254 is the gateway to that network.

Why would you need a static network? In our configuration example your default route is through your public network interface.
Any additional internal networks or VPN’s will not be available. The configuration above tells your Debian machine how to reach any VPN or networks not reachable via the default Network.

There is another change needed if you plan to configure this machine as a simple router. You need to enable IP forwarding, in other words allow the machine to forward traffic for its clients.
# nano /etc/sysctl.conf
Change the following line : net.ipv4.ip_forward = 0
to net.ipv4.ip_forward = 1

Reboot the machine to make the setting active, or issue the following command to make the kernel aware of the change:
# echo 1 > /proc/sys/net/ipv4/ip_forward

Why do you want your Debian machine to connect to other networks or VPN’s? If your machine is a proxy, or a gateway it needs to know where to route packets for its clients. Even if your remote networks or VPN’s have their own proxy, if you have a shared server in one of these networks you need to make it available for your users. It is easier to maintain a static route on one server than add it to all of the clients.