Tag Archives: DIY

How to Run Network Cables?

The best time to run your cables for a Computer Network is at the construction/renovation time. At this time it is the easiest to run cables and drill all the passage holes. If the building is already done and it doesn’t need any renovation you can still run your cables.

Fishing and Running Network Cables

For a new building, it is wise to run the cables through designated conduits and to calibrate your conduit so additional cables can be added at a later time if needed. Plan junction boxes at each floor or major node.

For an old building, installing conduits might not be possible. In this case you need to tie your cables in a bunch and secure the bunch to walls, ceiling, etc… You need to use a fish tape to fish your cables in the wall cavity. You might need to use a stud finder to avoid obstructing framing. Adjust your outlet’s position accordingly. Very often the help of a second person is needed when fishing cables, especially when you fish the cables from ceiling to the outlet, behind the wall. In this case on person feeds the fish tape down, or up depending on the case, the other person tries to catch the fish tape with another fish tape or something similar. Once the fish tape is on the position, passed through the drywall hole, attach your cables to the fish tape using duct tape. Run a pull line as well, it will be very useful in the future, in the case you want to add additional cables or replace the defective ones.

Rules for running Network Cables
Make sure before drilling any holes into joists, that you follow the building codes.
Take care of the network cable integrity:

  • do not drop objects on the cables
  • do not step on the cables,
  • do over-bend or over-twist the network cable

When you pull your cable through holes do not pull too hard as this could stretch the cable and modify its electrical qualities. Using a pull-string will provide additional firmness.
Try to avoid electric cables and other electromagnetic sources.

Cable Length and Routes

On an Ethernet type network, typically, we use a star network topology. This means that all of the devices connect into a central point, which is usually a network switch. The network switch receives and distributes all the network packets to network devices.

You need to plan your network so that the longest path from any two network devices is less than 100m, (328ft). If this is not possible plan using additional repeaters or switches. Position your network room, to obtain the least cable lengths.  

How to Build a Computer Network

If you own or manage two or more computers you need to connect your computers in a wired network to share Internet Connection and other services.
Here is a complete How To Build a Network.

Whether you are doing it at home or at your workplace, creating a computer network is not very difficult if you are a handy person and you have basic knowledge of computer networks. We will cover here most of the concepts you need to make your own LAN.
Computer Network
The series of articles will show you how to create a physical network and how to configure it to provide various services to your network users. We will focus on TCP/IP networks as this is the most common networking protocol.

Why Do You Need a Network?

You need a network if you need to share services for two or more computers.
Services that can be shared include: File sharing, sharing a network printer, Internet sharing, email services, Intranet, media broadcasting, etc…
In a home network, it is very common to share a printer and the Internet Connection.
In Business environment, the network becomes more complex and many more services will be needed to accommodate the use of many computers in a single network. Such services are DHCP – for automatic IP configuration, DNS – for name to IP resolution, corporate email, Proxy Server – for increased security on Internet, Intranet server – this is a private web server, VOIP phone system, etc…

What are the Limitations of My Network

You Ethernet cables are limited to 100m between any two active devices. If you need more than 100m between any two active devices such as computer and switch or computer to computer, you need to add a repeater or a hub, a switch will work as well, at each additional 100 meters, (or 333 ft.).
Depending on your materials and equipment, your network can run at 10Mb/s, 100Mb/s or 1Gigabit/s.
The most usual is to use Cat 5 or Cat 5e cables and connectors. A Cat 5 network can provide a speed up to 1000Mb/s.
If you need to connect at longer distances the more suitable solution are
Coaxial cable – up to 500M, speed 10Mb. You need special repeaters or hubs or special network cards.
The fiber optic – 10Km or more, speed up to 100Gb, depending on the equipment. It is the most expensive solution; the price though can be affordable for slower connections. For slower connections, most of the cost will consist on running the cable between the two points.
DSL is the cheap way to connect two remote offices if you have an available copper pair between the two offices.

What Do I Need to Make My own Network?

To make your own Ethernet Network you need the following equipment:
UTP/STP networking cable, RJ-45 connectors, Crimping tool, Punch down tool, Keystone Jacks, Wire stripper / Knife, Network Tester, Patch Panel, Network Switching device. The list includes also a stud finder, drywall saw, measuring tape, mounting plate, fish tape, ladder, and the usual tools such as screwdriver, drilling machine, hammer, etc…
Ample descriptions on the tools and materials are provided by following the links.

Computer Network Planning

The typical Ethernet Network has a star topology. That means that you have a central device, (network switch), that connects all of your network participants. This is important for your planning since you will have to run all of your cables to a central point. Make your measurements and place your central point in such manner that all of your cables are 100m or less. This includes the patch-cord as well.
If you have computers farther than 100m you will need to install a repeater. Alternatively you can use other types of connection, (coax, fiber optic, etc…), see the limitation paragraph.
When you run a cable consider the maximum amount of devices that can be stuffed into that office. It is a lot cheaper to run an extra cable or two per each office location than to run a single cable after the initial installation.
Install the keystones as close as possible to the actual location of the computer. Plan this thoroughly and pick the best location so that the patch-cord is out of the way.
Buy extra cable and extra connectors.
Use common paths for your cables whenever possible. If you run ten cables at once saves a lot of work and time.
Plan your cable route. Use ceiling whenever possible, it is the easiest path. Avoid running the cables near big electromagnetic sources.

Buying Computer Network Tools and Supplies

Do not buy cheap tools and materials. If you do, you will be penalized in different ways:
At the installation time you will get all sorts of problems trying to connect poor materials, cheap cable will be damaged more easily when manipulated, connectors will break easier.
In time the quality of the network will decrease if poor supplies and tools are used.
Overall experience and quality will be very poor if you get too cheap. If buying expensive tools is not justified, (a one time job), try to borrow good tools and don’t buy cheap ones.
Follow the links to learn what to look for when you are buying specific materials.
Now that you planned and bought all the Networking tools and supplies you can proceed to the Running the Cables for a Computer Network.

Computer Network – Tools and Supplies

Punch down tool

Punch down tool – The punch tool is used to insert the network cable in the patch panel or similar connection panels. For a small network up to 7 devices you might not need it as you can easily connect all of your devices directly into the switch.

Keystone module RJ45

Keystone Jacks – The RJ45 keystone jack is the female connector, usually immobile, part of a network connection that is mounted on the wall or similar. It provides a network connection close to the device to be connected. A patch-cord is used to connect the device to the keystone jack.

There are many types of RJ45 keystones, some require a punch down tool to be used, and some are tool-les, providing a lever for insertion and a retaining clip to secure the connection. The keystone is also produced for various categories, (Cat 3 – Cat 7), make sure you buy the correct one.


Deep Surplus
Wire Stripper Twisted Pair Cable

Wire stripper / Knife – I am not a fan of the wire stripper because it always cuts a little of the wires. Most of the times, the cut is superficial and it doesn’t get to the wire. But sometimes the stripper will scratch the wires. Using a utility knife or cutting pliers, is a little more laborious but I prefer it as I get more control. Moreover the many crimper tools come with a cable stripper. Don’t use that one, it doesn’t work for round cables, it only works for flat cables.

Simple Cable Tester

Network Tester – This is not a must, but if you are doing this for the first time, it will save you a lot of troubleshooting. For professional network cabling an expensive Network Tool that can measure attenuation, cable length, category supported, etc…, it’s a must. You need to give your client a report with your measurement results.
For small DIY jobs a simple tester will do it.


Patch Panel

Patch Panel – This is beyond the purpose of this article since it applies to bigger networks.

Network Switch

Network Switching device – The switching device switches packets between the different devices on your network. Modern switching devices can make a virtual map of all of the devices in your network and route packets according to this map.

Older connectivity devices, such as network hubs, used to indiscriminately broadcast the packets on all of the ports and only the device which the packet belonged to would have accepted it. This design creates a lot of collisions and saturates the network with unnecessary traffic.

Network hubs, (two or more ports), or repeaters, (only one port), are used to increase the maximum of 100m, (333 ft), between two devices connected on an Ethernet segment. Every repeater adds up another 100m.